Domain: Research

Themes: Assistive & Accessible Technology, Inclusive Design

ARCCS - Accessible Routes from Crowdsourced Cloud Services

Location: United Kingdom

Image of the Journey Logger interface.

Technology has evolved to the point where it is possible to combine sensor systems, with communications, data storage and machine learning algorithms in an IoT deployment to allow us automatically to characterise the environment and to measure the process of moving through it. As a consequence, it is now possible to envision a system in which information from automated data capture, coupled with subjective input and data feeds of travel advice, can be combined to provide navigation information to wheelchair users in a way that respects their specific disability.

ARCCS is a step-change in thinking in that it provides a bottom-up approach to accessibility engineering. ARCCS will build a wheelchair accessibility map for wheelchair users with data from wheelchair users. The resultant data set has the capacity to offer a number of new insights into the way in which wheelchair users interact with the environment and provide an evidence base for practice both in the transport world which is not currently available.


  • Association for Spinal Injury Research, Rehabilitation and Reintegration (ASPIRE)
  • UCL


Dr Catherine Holloway, Dr Steve Hailes, Dr Behzad Momahed Heravi, Dr Giulia Barabareshi


The sensors are currently being used in other projects such as:

  • Senzi Box: This project aims to use the ARCCS sensor to understand how children under five years old, acquire control skills when driving the Bugzi – the MERU electric wheelchair for toddlers.
  • AART-BC: ARCCS other sensors will help monitor the use of assistive technology in the everyday (home) environment and outside in the urban environment, in an unobtrusive manner.
  • Created out of mind: ARCCS are being used to track human movement indoors within an art exhibition space.
  • Sleep disorders: ARCCS sensors will be adapted to be used to monitor human movement and sound during sleep disorders such as parasomnia with patients at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery from University College London Hospital.

James Dyson Foundation Summer School 2017 –“Redesign the Wheelchair” (Monday 17th July to Friday 21st July 2017): 16 students redesigned the wheelchair using Dyson inspiration during this week-long event which saw them also debate and interact with wheelchair users from Whizz-Kidz.

Barbareschi G Evaluation of wheelchair transfers performance based on body segments acceleration in Journal of Rehabilitation and Assistive Technologies Engineering

Cheng T (2016) Effect of environmental factors on how older pedestrians detect an upcoming step in Lighting Research and Technology

Gupta M (2015) A comparison between smartphone sensors and bespoke sensor devices for wheelchair accessibility studies

Gupta, M (2015) Can the smartphone sensors be used for wheelchair accessibility studies?

Holloway C (2016) Disrupting the world of Disability: The Next Generation of Assistive Technologies and Rehabilitation Practices. Healthcare technology letters

Holloway C (2016) Street rehab: Linking accessibility and rehabilitation. Conference proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual Conference

Holloway CS (2015) Linking wheelchair kinetics to glenohumeral joint demand during everyday accessibility activities. Conference proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual Conference

Holloway CS (2016) Editorial: "This is a very dynamic and exciting time for assistive technologies and for tracking rehabilitation practices." in Healthcare technology letters

Sarah Nicholson (2016) Designing an app interface for wheelchair users to report accessibility points of interest for navigation in the urban environment.

Symonds A (2017) A systematic review: the influence of real time feedback on wheelchair propulsion biomechanics. Disability and rehabilitation. Assistive technology

Watanabe T (2016) A basic study on temporal parameter estimation of wheelchair propulsion based on measurement of upper limb movements using inertial sensors

Williams R (2016) The ultimate wearable